Thesaurus lexicorum Graecorum

Greek, more so than Latin, is an extraordinarily varied and complex language. With its rich array of vocabulary, Greek holds a magnificent capacity to portray the fullness of reality in its most subtle hues and elusive nuances. From the Renaissance onward, a remarkable number of dictionaries published in Europe which in turn have proved to be useful tools for historians, poets, and philosophers for exploring the vastness of Greek literature. On this page we have compiled a list of important dictionaries available online for free. Some of these resources, such as the Latin to Greek word lists and synonyms, will be useful for those interested in practicing written and spoken ancient Greek. Some of these resources, such as the Latin to Greek word lists and synonyms, will be useful for those interested in practicing written and spoken ancient Greek. This compilation, the most complete of its kind online, also features links to the great Late Antique and Byzantine lexical resources: the lexicon of Hesychius of Alexandria, the Bilbiotheca of Photius, and the Suda.

Index lexicorum


1. Antiquity

a. Liddell & Scott

Most frequently used dictionary by Hellenists throughout the world.

the most authoritative Greek language dictionary.

H.G. Liddell -R. Scott, A Greek lexicon, Oxford 1925-1940

b. Μέγα λεξικὸν ὅλης τῆς ἑλληνικῆς γλώσσης

Greek words with definitions written in ancient Greek.

Largest Greek language dictionary spanning Homer to our own time.

Σ. Δημητριάκου, Μέγα λεξικὸν ὅλης τῆς ἑλληνικῆς γλώσσης, Ἀθήνησι 1950

vol. I-V

vol.  VI-XV 


c. Thesaurus Graecae Linguae

Lodestar for Greek lexicography.

The Greek-Latin lexicon of Henri Estienne (Stephanus).

Thesaurus Graecae Linguae ab Henrico Stephano constructus etc. Parisiis  1830-1854











d. Passow

Rigor and Discipline.

Renowned philological dictionary in German.

Handwörterbuch der Griechischen Sprache, begründet von Franz Passow, neu bearbeitet und zeitgemäss umgestaltet von dr. Val. Chr. Fr. Rost, dr. Fr. Palm und dr. Otto Kreussler, Leipzig 1831-1858

Ersten Bandes erste Abteilung (1831) A-E

Ersten Bandes zweite Abteilung (1847) Ε-K

Ζweiten Bandes erste Abteilung (1852) K-Λ

Zweiten Bandes zweite Abteilung (1857) Ρ-Ω

e. Bailly-Chantraine

Accurate and Concise.

Valuable dictionary produced by important Hellenists in France.

M.A. Bailly, Dictionnaire grec-français, éd. revué par L. Séchan et P. Chantraine, Paris 1950

f. Dictionnaire étymologique

Most important etymological dictionary for the Greek language.

Etymological dictionary of Pierre Chantraine.

P. Chantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, Paris 1968

g. Schmid

Pure Attic Honey!

Dictionary focused on Atticisms.

W. Schmid, Der Atticismus in seinen Hauptvertretern, Stuttgardt 1887-1897

h. Lampe

For Theologians!

Dictionary with focus on the Greek of the Church Fathers.

G.W. Lampe, A patristic Greek Lexicon, 1961-1967

i. Dufour

Greek synonyms for beginners.

Quick guide for sorting out Greek synonyms.

M. Dufour, Traité élémentaire des synoymes grecs, Paris 1910


i. Schmidt

Comprehensive treatment of Greek synonyms.

Most extensive work with a focus on Greek synonyms.

J. H. Heinrich Schmidt, Synonymik der griechischen Sprache, Leipzig 1876-1888

Erster Band 

Zweiter Band

Dritter Band 

l. Schrevelius

How do you say that in Greek?

Quick-reference Greek-Latin and Latin-Greek dictionary.

C. Schrevelii Lexicon manuale  Graeco-Latinum et Latino-Graecum, New York 1832



2. Middle Age and Early Modern


a. Lexikon zur Byzantinischen Gräzität

Learn about Byzantine Greek words…in German!

Indispensable tool for the study of Greek in the Middle Ages.

Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität , Wien 2001-2017

b. Sophocles

Learn about Byzantine Greek words…in English!

Well reputed resource among Byzantinists.

E.A. Sophocles, Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods, Boston-Cambridge 1970

c. Du Cange

Foundation for lexicography of Medieval Greek.

Du Cange’s glossary.

Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae Graecitatis […] auctore Carolo du Fresne domino Du Cange, Lugduni 1688

Tomus I (A-Π)

Tomus II (Ρ- Ω)


d. Κουμανούδης

Ancient Greek from the capture of Constantinople to our present time.

The handbook of Stephanos Koumanoudis.

Στ. Κουμανούδης, Συναγωγὴ νέων λέξεων ὑπὸ τῶν λογίων πλασθεισῶν ἀπὸ τῆς ἁλώσεως μέχρι τῶν καθ᾽ἡμᾶς χρόνων, Ἀθήνησι 1900


3. Sciences and Arts


a. Lexicon technologiae Graecorum rhetoricae

For refining eloquence!

Lexicon for rhetorical terminology in Greek.

C. T. Ernesti, Lexicon technologiae Graecorum rhetoricae, Lipsiae 1795


4.Significant dictionaries for Late Antique and Byzantine Greek



Only complete dictionary which has survived from antiquity.

Lexicon of Hesychius (5th century CE).

M. Schmidt, Hesychii Alexandrini Lexicon, Jena 1858-68

b. Suda

Largest encyclopedia from the Byzantine period.

The Suda (or Suida), 10th-11th century CE.

Suidae Lexicon, recensuit A. Adler, Lipsiae 1928-1938.


c. Photius

Survey of epitomes undertaken by Photius.

Also referred to as Μυριόβιβλος, 11th century CE.


Photii Patriarchae Lexicon, recensuit  […] S. A. Naber, Lugduni Batavorum 1864-1865